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Nginx0.631+PHP5.2.6最新配置详解

来源:本站原创 日期:2008-08-20 13:55

安装步骤:
(系统要求:Linux 2.6+ 内核,本文中的Linux操作系统为CentOS 5.1,另在RedHat AS4上也安装成功)

一、获取相关开源程序:
1、利用CentOS Linux系统自带的yum命令安装、升级所需的程序库(RedHat等其他Linux发行版可从安装光盘中找到这些程序库的RPM包,进行安装):
 

sudo -s
LANG=C
yum -y install gcc gcc-c++ autoconf libjpeg libjpeg-devel libpng libpng-devel freetype freetype-devel libpng libpng-devel libxml2 libxml2-devel zlib zlib-devel glibc glibc-devel glib2 glib2-devel bzip2 bzip2-devel ncurses ncurses-devel curl curl-devel



2、下载程序源码包:
本文中提到的所有开源软件为截止到2008年6月5日的最新稳定版。
 

mkdir -p /data0/software
cd /data0/software
wget http://sysoev.ru/nginx/nginx-0.6.31.tar.gz
wget http://www.php.net/get/php-5.2.6.tar.gz/from/this/mirror
wget http://php-fpm.anight.org/downloads/head/php-5.2.6-fpm-0.5.8.diff.gz
wget http://dev.mysql.com/get/Downloads/MySQL-5.1/mysql-5.1.24-rc.tar.gz/from/http://mysql.ntu.edu.tw/
wget http://ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu/libiconv/libiconv-1.12.tar.gz
wget "http://downloads.sourceforge.net/mcrypt/libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.gz?modtime=1171868460&big_mirror=0"
wget "http://downloads.sourceforge.net/mcrypt/mcrypt-2.6.7.tar.gz?modtime=1194463373&big_mirror=0"
wget http://pecl.php.net/get/memcache-2.2.3.tgz
wget "http://downloads.sourceforge.net/mhash/mhash-0.9.9.tar.gz?modtime=1175740843&big_mirror=0"
wget ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-7.7.tar.gz
wget http://xcache.lighttpd.net/pub/Releases/1.2.2/xcache-1.2.2.tar.gz


 



二、安装PHP 5.2.6(FastCGI模式)
1、编译安装PHP 5.2.6所需的支持库:
 

tar zxvf libiconv-1.12.tar.gz
cd libiconv-1.12/
./configure --prefix=/usr/local
make
make install
cd ../

tar zxvf libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.gz
cd libmcrypt-2.5.8/
./configure
make
make install
/sbin/ldconfig
cd libltdl/
./configure --enable-ltdl-install
make
make install
cd ../../

tar zxvf mhash-0.9.9.tar.gz
cd mhash-0.9.9/
./configure
make
make install
cd ../

cp /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.* /usr/lib
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so.2 /usr/lib/libmhash.so.2

tar zxvf mcrypt-2.6.7.tar.gz
cd mcrypt-2.6.7/
./configure
make
make install
cd ../


 



2、编译安装MySQL 5.1.24-rc
 

/usr/sbin/groupadd mysql
/usr/sbin/useradd -g mysql mysql
tar zxvf mysql-5.1.24-rc.tar.gz
cd mysql-5.1.24-rc/
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/webserver/mysql/ --without-debug --with-unix-socket-path=/usr/local/webserver/mysql/mysql.sock --with-client-ldflags=-all-static --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static --enable-assembler --with-extra-charsets=gbk,gb2312,utf8 --with-pthread --enable-thread-safe-client
make && make install
chmod +w /usr/local/webserver/mysql
chown -R mysql:mysql /usr/local/webserver/mysql
cp support-files/my-medium.cnf /usr/local/webserver/mysql/my.cnf
cd ../


 



附:以下为附加步骤,如果你想在这台服务器上运行MySQL数据库,则执行以下两步。如果你只是希望让PHP支持MySQL扩展库,能够连接其他服务器上的MySQL数据库,那么,以下两步无需执行。
①、以mysql用户帐号的身份建立数据表:
 

/usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysql_install_db --defaults-file=/usr/local/webserver/mysql/my.cnf --basedir=/usr/local/webserver/mysql --datadir=/usr/local/webserver/mysql/data --user=mysql --pid-file=/usr/local/webserver/mysql/mysql.pid --skip-locking --port=3306 --socket=/tmp/mysql.sock



②、启动MySQL(最后的&表示在后台运行)
 

/bin/sh /usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysqld_safe --defaults-file=/usr/local/webserver/mysql/my.cnf &


 



3、编译安装PHP(FastCGI模式)
 

tar zxvf php-5.2.6.tar.gz
gzip -cd php-5.2.6-fpm-0.5.8.diff.gz | patch -d php-5.2.6 -p1
cd php-5.2.6/
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/webserver/php --with-config-file-path=/usr/local/webserver/php/etc --with-mysql=/usr/local/webserver/mysql --with-mysqli=/usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysql_config --with-iconv-dir=/usr/local --with-freetype-dir --with-jpeg-dir --with-png-dir --with-zlib --with-libxml-dir=/usr --enable-xml --disable-debug --disable-rpath --enable-discard-path --enable-safe-mode --enable-bcmath --enable-shmop --enable-sysvsem --enable-inline-optimization --with-curl --with-curlwrappers --enable-mbregex --enable-fastcgi --enable-fpm --enable-force-cgi-redirect --enable-mbstring --with-mcrypt --with-gd --enable-gd-native-ttf --with-openssl
sed -i 's#-lz -lm -lxml2 -lz -lm -lxml2 -lz -lm -lcrypt#& -liconv#' Makefile
make
make install
cp php.ini-dist /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini
cd ../


 



4、编译安装PHP5扩展模块
 

tar zxvf memcache-2.2.3.tgz
cd memcache-2.2.3/
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
./configure --with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config
make
make install
cd ../

tar zxvf xcache-1.2.2.tar.gz
cd xcache-1.2.2/
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
./configure --with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config --enable-xcache
make
make install
cd ../



5、修改php.ini文件
手工修改:查找/usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini中的extension_dir = "./"
修改为extension_dir = "/usr/local/webserver/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/"
并在此行后增加以下几行,然后保存:
extension = "memcache.so"

再查找display_errors = On
修改为display_errors = Off

自动修改:若嫌手工修改麻烦,可执行以下shell命令,自动完成对php.ini文件的修改:
 

sed -i 's#extension_dir = "./"#extension_dir = "/usr/local/webserver/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/"\nextension = "memcache.so"\n#' /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini
sed -i 's#display_errors = On#display_errors = Off#' /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini



6、配置XCache加速PHP:
 

vi /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini


按shift+g键跳到配置文件的最末尾,加上以下配置信息:
 

引用
[xcache-common]
zend_extension = /usr/local/webserver/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/xcache.so

[xcache.admin]
xcache.admin.user = "xcache"
; xcache.admin.pass = md5($yourpasswd)
xcache.admin.pass = "8e6867a5d05144cf4761d6481fc674a8"

[xcache]
xcache.cacher = On
xcache.shm_scheme = "mmap"
xcache.size = 32M
; cpu number (cat /proc/cpuinfo |grep -c processor)
xcache.count = 2
xcache.slots = 8k
xcache.ttl = 0
xcache.gc_interval = 0
xcache.var_size = 2M
; cpu number (cat /proc/cpuinfo |grep -c processor)
xcache.var_count = 2
xcache.var_slots = 8K
xcache.var_ttl = 0
xcache.var_maxttl = 0
xcache.var_gc_interval = 300
xcache.readonly_protection = Off
xcache.mmap_path = "/dev/zero"


 



7、创建www用户和组,以及供blog.s135.com和www.s135.com两个虚拟主机使用的目录:
 

/usr/sbin/groupadd www -g 48
/usr/sbin/useradd -u 48 -g www www
mkdir -p /data0/htdocs/blog
chmod +w /data0/htdocs/blog
chown -R www:www /data0/htdocs/blog
mkdir -p /data0/htdocs/www
chmod +w /data0/htdocs/www
chown -R www:www /data0/htdocs/www



8、创建php-fpm配置文件(php-fpm是为PHP打的一个FastCGI管理补丁,可以平滑变更php.ini配置而无需重启php-cgi):
在/usr/local/webserver/php/etc/目录中创建php-fpm.conf文件:
 

rm -f /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php-fpm.conf
vi /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php-fpm.conf


输入以下内容:

view plainprint?
<?xml version="1.0" ?>
<configuration>
All relative paths in this config are relative to php's install prefix
<section name="global_options">
 Pid file
 <value name="pid_file">/usr/local/webserver/php/logs/php-fpm.pid</value>

 Error log file
 <value name="error_log">/usr/local/webserver/php/logs/php-fpm.log</value>

 Log level
 <value name="log_level">notice</value>

 When this amount of php processes exited with SIGSEGV or SIGBUS ...
 <value name="emergency_restart_threshold">10</value>

 ... in a less than this interval of time,
 a graceful restart will be initiated.
 Useful to work around accidental curruptions in accelerator's shared memory.
 <value name="emergency_restart_interval">1m</value>

 Time limit on waiting child's reaction on signals from master
 <value name="process_control_timeout">5s</value>

 Set to 'no' to debug fpm
 <value name="daemonize">yes</value>
</section>

<workers>
<section name="pool">

Name of pool. Used in logs and stats.
<value name="name">default</value>

Address to accept fastcgi requests on.
Valid syntax is 'ip.ad.re.ss:port' or just 'port' or '/path/to/unix/socket'
<value name="listen_address">127.0.0.1:9000</value>

<value name="listen_options">
 Set listen(2) backlog
 <value name="backlog">-1</value>

 Set permissions for unix socket, if one used.
 In Linux read/write permissions must be set in order to allow
 connections from web server.
 Many BSD-derrived systems allow connections regardless of permissions.
 <value name="owner"></value>
 <value name="group"></value>
 <value name="mode">0666</value>
</value>

Additional php.ini defines, specific to this pool of workers.
<value name="php_defines">
 <value name="sendmail_path">/usr/sbin/sendmail -t -i</value>
 <value name="display_errors">0</value>
</value>

Unix user of processes
<value name="user">www</value>

Unix group of processes
<value name="group">www</value>

Process manager settings
<value name="pm">

 Sets style of controling worker process count.
 Valid values are 'static' and 'apache-like'
 <value name="style">static</value>

 Sets the limit on the number of simultaneous requests that will be served.
 Equivalent to Apache MaxClients directive.
 Equivalent to PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN environment in original php.fcgi
 Used with any pm_style.
 <value name="max_children">128</value>

 Settings group for 'apache-like' pm style
 <value name="apache_like">
  Sets the number of server processes created on startup.
  Used only when 'apache-like' pm_style is selected
  <value name="StartServers">20</value>

  Sets the desired minimum number of idle server processes.
  Used only when 'apache-like' pm_style is selected
  <value name="MinSpareServers">5</value>

  Sets the desired maximum number of idle server processes.
  Used only when 'apache-like' pm_style is selected
  <value name="MaxSpareServers">250</value>
 </value>

</value>

Time limit on waiting execution of single request
Should be used when 'max_execution_time' ini option does
not terminate execution for some reason
<value name="request_execution_timeout">31s</value>

Set open file desc rlimit
<value name="rlimit_files">51200</value>

Set max core size rlimit
<value name="rlimit_core">0</value>

Chroot to this directory at the start
<value name="chroot"></value>

Chdir to this directory at the start
<value name="chdir"></value>

Redirect workers' stdout and stderr into main error log.
If not set, they will be redirected to /dev/null, according to FastCGI specs
<value name="catch_workers_output">yes</value>

How much requests each process should execute before respawn.
Useful to work around memory leaks in 3rd party libraries.
For endless request processing please specify 0
Equivalent to PHP_FCGI_MAX_REQUESTS
<value name="max_requests">51200</value>

Comma separated list of ipv4 addresses of FastCGI clients that allowed to connect.
Equivalent to FCGI_WEB_SERVER_ADDRS environment in original php.fcgi (5.2.2+)
Makes sense only with AF_INET listening socket.
<value name="allowed_clients">127.0.0.1</value>

Pass environment variables like LD_LIBRARY_PATH
All $VARIABLEs are taken from current environment
<value name="environment">
 <value name="HOSTNAME">$HOSTNAME</value>
 <value name="PATH">/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin</value>
 <value name="TMP">/tmp</value>
 <value name="TMPDIR">/tmp</value>
 <value name="TEMP">/tmp</value>
 <value name="OSTYPE">$OSTYPE</value>
 <value name="MACHTYPE">$MACHTYPE</value>
 <value name="MALLOC_CHECK_">2</value>
</value>

</section>
</workers>
</configuration>

9、启动php-cgi进程,监听127.0.0.1的9000端口,进程数为128(如果服务器内存小于3GB,可以只开启25个进程),用户为www:

/usr/local/webserver/php/sbin/php-fpm start


注:/usr/local/webserver/php/sbin/php-fpm还有其他参数,包括: start|stop|quit|restart|reload|logrotate,修改php.ini后不重启php-cgi,重新加载配置文件使用 reload。

 



三、安装Nginx 0.6.31
1、安装Nginx所需的pcre库:
 

tar zxvf pcre-7.7.tar.gz
cd pcre-7.7/
./configure
make && make install
cd ../



2、安装Nginx
 

tar zxvf nginx-0.6.31.tar.gz
cd nginx-0.6.31/
./configure --user=www --group=www --prefix=/usr/local/webserver/nginx --with-http_stub_status_module --with-http_ssl_module
make && make install
cd ../



3、创建Nginx日志目录
 

mkdir -p /data1/logs
chmod +w /data1/logs
chown -R www:www /data1/logs



4、创建Nginx配置文件
①、在/usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/目录中创建nginx.conf文件:
 

rm -f /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
vi /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf


输入以下内容:
 

引用
user  www www;

worker_processes 8;

error_log  /data1/logs/nginx_error.log  crit;

pid        /usr/local/webserver/nginx/nginx.pid;

#Specifies the value for maximum file descriptors that can be opened by this process.
worker_rlimit_nofile 51200;

events
{
     use epoll;

     worker_connections 51200;
}

http
{
     include       mime.types;
     default_type  application/octet-stream;

     charset  utf-8;
     
     server_names_hash_bucket_size 128;
     
     sendfile on;
     tcp_nopush     on;

     keepalive_timeout 60;

     tcp_nodelay on;

     fastcgi_connect_timeout 60;
     fastcgi_send_timeout 180;
     fastcgi_read_timeout 180;
     fastcgi_buffer_size 128k;
     fastcgi_buffers 4 128k;
     fastcgi_busy_buffers_size 128k;
     fastcgi_temp_file_write_size 128k;
     fastcgi_temp_path /dev/shm;

     gzip on;
     gzip_min_length  1k;
     gzip_buffers     4 8k;
     gzip_http_version 1.1;
     gzip_types       text/plain application/x-javascript text/css text/html application/xml;

     server
     {
             listen       80;
             server_name  blog.s135.com;
             index index.html index.htm index.php;
             root  /data0/htdocs/blog;

             if (-d $request_filename)
             {
                    rewrite ^/(.*)([^/])$ http://$host/$1$2/ permanent;
             }
                           
             location ~ .*\.php?$
             {
                  include fcgi.conf;      
                  #fastcgi_pass  unix:/tmp/php-cgi.sock;
                  fastcgi_pass  127.0.0.1:9000;
                  fastcgi_index index.php;
             }

             log_format  access  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
                                   '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
                                   '"$http_user_agent" $http_x_forwarded_for';
             access_log  /data1/logs/access.log  access;
     }

     server
     {
             listen       80;
             server_name  www.s135.com;
             index index.html index.htm index.php;
             root  /data0/htdocs/www;

             if (-d $request_filename)
             {
                    rewrite ^/(.*)([^/])$ http://$host/$1$2/ permanent;
             }

             location ~ .*\.php?$
             {
                  include fcgi.conf;
                  #fastcgi_pass  unix:/tmp/php-cgi.sock;
                  fastcgi_pass  127.0.0.1:9000;
                  fastcgi_index index.php;
             }

             log_format  wwwlogs  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
                                   '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
                                   '"$http_user_agent" $http_x_forwarded_for';
             access_log  /data1/logs/wwwlogs.log  wwwlogs;
     }

     server
     {
             listen  80;
             server_name  status.blog.s135.com;

             location / {
                  stub_status on;
                  access_log   off;
             }
     }
}



②、在/usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/目录中创建fcgi.conf文件:
 

vi /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/fcgi.conf


输入以下内容:
 

引用
fastcgi_param  GATEWAY_INTERFACE  CGI/1.1;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_SOFTWARE    nginx;

fastcgi_param  QUERY_STRING       $query_string;
fastcgi_param  REQUEST_METHOD     $request_method;
fastcgi_param  CONTENT_TYPE       $content_type;
fastcgi_param  CONTENT_LENGTH     $content_length;

fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME    $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_NAME        $fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param  REQUEST_URI        $request_uri;
fastcgi_param  DOCUMENT_URI       $document_uri;
fastcgi_param  DOCUMENT_ROOT      $document_root;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_PROTOCOL    $server_protocol;

fastcgi_param  REMOTE_ADDR        $remote_addr;
fastcgi_param  REMOTE_PORT        $remote_port;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_ADDR        $server_addr;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_PORT        $server_port;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_NAME        $server_name;

# PHP only, required if PHP was built with --enable-force-cgi-redirect
#fastcgi_param  REDIRECT_STATUS    200;



5、启动Nginx
 

/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx


 



四、配置开机自动启动Nginx + PHP
 

vi /etc/rc.local


在末尾增加以下内容:
 

引用
/usr/local/webserver/php/sbin/php-fpm start
/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx


 



五、优化Linux内核参数
 

vi /etc/sysctl.conf


在末尾增加以下内容:
 

引用
net.ipv4.tcp_fin_timeout = 30
net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_time = 300
net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle = 1
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 5000    65000



使配置立即生效:
 

/sbin/sysctl -p


 



六、在不停止Nginx服务的情况下平滑变更Nginx配置
(1)、修改/usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf配置文件后,请执行以下命令检查配置文件是否正确:
 

/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx -t


如果屏幕显示以下两行信息,说明配置文件正确:
the configuration file /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf syntax is ok
the configuration file /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf was tested successfully


(2)、这时,输入以下命令查看Nginx主进程号:
 

ps -ef | grep "nginx: master process" | grep -v "grep" | awk -F ' ' '{print $2}'


屏幕显示的即为Nginx主进程号,例如:
6302
这时,执行以下命令即可使修改过的Nginx配置文件生效:
 

kill -HUP 6302


或者无需这么麻烦,找到Nginx的Pid文件:
 

kill -HUP `cat /usr/local/webserver/nginx/nginx.pid`


 

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